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Vol. 2 (2022)

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Authors in this issue:

Zaimara Veliz Moreno, Edelys Núñez Ravelo, Lisandra Arencibia Llanes, Idania Esther Suarez Castillo, Yolanda Contreras Tamargo Antonia Inés García Miranda, María Cristina Valle Campo, Jorge Luis González Serra, Yonaiki Valdés López, Yordairon Perdomo Falcón Yairelys Espinosa Ferro, Daisy Mesa Trujillo, Juan Jesús Llibre Yuliet Tomás Portales, Omaida Rodríguez Díaz, Elsa Ramona Hernández Díaz, Yarisel Álvarez Rosales, Marilyn Dopico Álvarez Rosa Marila Blanco Fuentes, Yamilin Fernández Alvares, Mercedes Martínez Cruz, Odalys Lago Carballea, Marleidy García Pérez Daelys Castro Montesino, Issel Padrón Reguera, Omar Ramos Fernández, Mercedes Robaina Relova, Wilfredo Correas Valladares Luis Alberto Vitón Fleitas, Mildrey Díaz Herrera, Osmaiki Martin Junco, Yadira Méndez Borrego, Yenisleidy González Borges Daisy Mesa Trujillo, Claudia de la Caridad Zayas Argos, Ana Iris Verona Izquierdo, Israel García Mesa, Abanis López Zamora Niurka María Guzmán Carballo, Luis Leonardo Álvarez Guzmán, Elsa Camargo Loaces, Sonia Rodríguez Núñez, Verónica Álvarez Guzmán Marielys Echevarría González, Adriana Prieto Alfonso, Osbel Dupeirón Ramos, Yaima Ramos Horta, Yarisleidy Roque Carrera, Yaribel Licort Pita Anaisa Rodríguez Zamora, Ramona Páez Miranda, Ivis Anabel Rodríguez Cruz, Yohandra Suárez López, Milexis Sánchez Pedroso, Lesvya Portales Robaina Javier Gonzalez-Argote Leandro Mendoza Rivas, Ismael Lázaro Armenta Alcocer Javier Gonzalez-Argote Leandro Mendoza Rivas, Laura Martínez Cruz Carlos Alberto Gómez Cano, Verenice Sánchez Castillo ,

Published: January 1, 2022

Contents

2022-10-28 Original
Anxiety, depression and coping strategies in convalescent Covid-19 patients

As an effect of the Covid-19 pandemic, it is expected that there will be a worsening of psychological health in the general population. An increase in the levels of anxiety and depression may be observed, depending on the coping resources that each person has or the lack of them. A study was carried out with convalescent patients of Covid-19 in the municipality of Viñales with the objective of determining the levels of anxiety, depression, and the coping strategies used. The study had a non-experimental, cross-sectional design with exploratory-descriptive scope. The sample selection was non-probabilistic and consisted of 77 patients. The interview, the IDARE, the IDERE, and the Lazarus and Folkman's Coping Modes Scale were used as techniques. As results, a predominance of the male sex was identified, the most affected age group with 76% is 25 to 55 years of age and the most affected popular council is Viñales. There was evidence of medium anxiety levels as a state and high as a trait in 75% of the sample, 86% presented medium levels of depression as a state and high as a trait. The coping strategies used were focused on the problem, which was representative of 90% of those studied.

By Zaimara Veliz Moreno, Edelys Núñez Ravelo, Lisandra Arencibia Llanes, Idania Esther Suarez Castillo, Yolanda Contreras Tamargo

2022-10-26 Original
Disability and functionality of older adults

Introduction: the population of all the countries of the Americas is in the process of aging, the Cuban population is no stranger to this social phenomenon that generates new damages to health.
Objective: to characterize the disability and functionability of older adults belonging to the medical office 8 of the Policlínico Fermín Valdés Domínguez, Viñales municipality in 2018.
Methods: an observational, analytical, and cross-sectional study was carried out, 256 older adults were identified as the universe, selecting a sample of 179 by simple random sampling. Theoretical and empirical methods were used to review the clinical histories and the Katz index and the Lawton scale were applied to determine functionability, descriptive and inferential statistics, the nonparametric Mann Whitney test and the Spearman test, all with a level of certainty of 95%; the data were included in tables and graphs for better understanding.
Results: an average of 67 years of age and prevalence of female sex was observed; 54.7 % of the older adults did not present disability; diabetes mellitus was associated with special sensory system disability, 72.6 % were independent when applying Katz index and 69.3 % the Lawton scale, functionability decreases with age.
Conclusions: most of the older adults did not present disabilities and maintained their functional capacity, which contributes to achieve a healthy longevity and better quality of life.

By Antonia Inés García Miranda, María Cristina Valle Campo, Jorge Luis González Serra, Yonaiki Valdés López, Yordairon Perdomo Falcón

2022-10-28 Original
Prevalence and risk associations of mild cognitive impairment in community-dwelling elderly people

Introduction: Mild cognitive impairment includes for diagnosis memory complaints, preferably corroborated by an informant; memory impairment according to age and education; preserved general cognitive function; intact activities of daily living; and no evidence of dementia. Objective: To determine the prevalence and risk associations of mild cognitive impairment in community-dwelling elderly.
Methods: This is an observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study conducted from January to December 2019. The population consisted of 150 elderly people aged 65 years old from the family medical office No.1 of Los Palacios municipality.
Results: Female sex, age group 80 years and older, medium level of schooling, marital status without a partner, physical inactivity, hypertension, smoking, depression and insomnia were predominant and there were also affectations in immediate and mediate memory. Age and history of stroke were risk factors with statistical significance, while educational level was a protective factor.
Conclusions: The preservation of cognitive functions is a necessary condition to develop an independent and productive life, so intervention strategies are needed to improve the quality of life of the elderly.

By Yairelys Espinosa Ferro, Daisy Mesa Trujillo, Juan Jesús Llibre

2022-10-29 Original
Emotional manifestations and perceived social support in elderly adults in the face of the impact of Covid-19

Introduction: The confrontation with the pandemic has caused changes in the lifestyles of all people, to comply with the strict social isolation, and the elderly, a vulnerable group before covid-19, have had to modify their routines for a better adaptation to the current situation.
Objective: to determine the emotional manifestations and the social support perceived in elderly people facing the covid-19 pandemic, who belong to the clinic 24, Puerto Esperanza, Viñales municipality in the year 2021.
Methods: a descriptive study was carried out, based on the non-experimental and transversal method, working with a non-probabilistic sample of 30 elderly people, between 60 and 75 years old. Theoretical and empirical methods were used as the applied techniques: semi-structured interview, IDARE, MOS Social Support Questionnaire and Yesavage Geriatric Depression Test and descriptive statistics.
Results: there was a predominance of female sex, married marital status, no work relationship and the family structure was characterized by the presence of small and bigeneracionales family nuclei. Regarding the emotional level, there was a predominance of medium levels of anxiety as a state (86%) and as a trait (76%) and with respect to depression there was a prevalence of light levels (80%). The degree of perceived social support that predominated was high (80%), with the family standing out as the main source of support (emotional, affective and material) for this group.
Conclusions: the population under study showed medium levels of anxiety and depression and an adequate perception of social support in the face of the impact of COVID-19, only showing high levels of anxiety and depression in 20% of the population that expressed a low level of social support.

By Yuliet Tomás Portales, Omaida Rodríguez Díaz, Elsa Ramona Hernández Díaz, Yarisel Álvarez Rosales, Marilyn Dopico Álvarez

2022-11-05 Original
Effectiveness of rectal ozone therapy in patients with sensorineural hearing loss

Introduction: Sensorineural hearing loss is defined as the loss of hearing capacity, producing a difficulty or impossibility to hear normally, where there is damage to the inner ear or the auditory nerve. Medical ozone has proven biological effects that make it very useful in this pathology, since it intervenes in the intracellular metabolism regulating its redox state.
Methods: A descriptive, prospective and longitudinal study was carried out in the Natural and Traditional Medicine Service of the Dr. "León Cuervo Rubio" Clinical and Surgical Teaching Hospital, with the Otorhinolaryngology Service of the General Hospital Abel Santamaría Cuadrado to evaluate the effectiveness of rectal ozone therapy in patients with Sensorineural Hearing Loss. The sample consisted of 35 patients who met the inclusion criteria. A traditional clinical history was taken and an audiometric evaluation by the ENT specialist was recorded before and after treatment with prior informed consent.
Results: The nosological entity was predominantly male and between 45 and 54 years of age. The most significant risk factors were arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus, 54.20% had good response to treatment.
Conclusions: Rectal ozone therapy proved to be effective in patients with sensorineural hearing loss.

By Rosa Marila Blanco Fuentes, Yamilin Fernández Alvares, Mercedes Martínez Cruz, Odalys Lago Carballea, Marleidy García Pérez

2022-11-17 Original
Clinical and epidemiological characterization of disability in the elderly population

Introduction: the phenomenon of population aging has contributed to the increasing prevalence of disability in the elderly.
Objective: to characterize clinically and epidemiologically the disability in the elderly population of the medical office No. 14 belonging to the popular council Hermanos Saíz, San Juan y Martínez, in the period 2018-2020.
Method: an observational, descriptive, prospective study was conducted covering the population over 60 years of age. The sample consisted of 154 elderly adults with disabilities, selected by systematic and stratified sampling. Theoretical, empirical and statistical methods were used. Instruments such as the Katz Index, Lawton Index, Minimum Mental Status Examination, and the Survey of Disability Risk Factors (EFRD) were applied. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis and processing. This research complied with the ethics fundamentals of the Declaration of Helsinki 2008.
Results: there is a predominance of female sex, age group between 60 and 69 years, and primary education level. The highest percentage is single, retired or pensioned. Acquired disability and, within them, physical, motor and mental disabilities are the most frequent. The most prevalent morbidity is arterial hypertension. Predominance of functioning level III. The most frequent risk factors are female sex, age, education and chronic non-communicable diseases.
Conclusions: knowledge of the epidemiological behavior of the elderly with disabilities will allow the development of actions with a promotional approach to improve quality of life and thus health.

By Daelys Castro Montesino, Issel Padrón Reguera, Omar Ramos Fernández, Mercedes Robaina Relova, Wilfredo Correas Valladares

2022-11-19 Original
Effectiveness of the treatment applied in the smoking cessation consultation

Introduction: The WHO estimates that approximately one third of the world's population is smokers, the use of traditional medicine in the treatment of smoking is recognized.
Objective: to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment applied in the smoking cessation consultation, medical office 9 of Puerto Esperanza, Viñales in 2018.
Methods: an observational, analytical cohort research was conducted with 90 smokers who met the inclusion criteria. They were divided into three study groups, according to simple random sampling, applying psychological techniques, auriculopuncture and homeopathy. Theoretical, empirical and statistical methods were applied, given in absolute and relative frequency. Variables used were: age and sex, level of schooling, type of smokers, effectiveness of the treatment, number of cigarettes smoked before and after the treatment, showing the results in tables for better interpretation.
Results: There was a predominance of the male sex and the age groups were different in the sample of the three study groups, with a predominance of patients with medium technical schooling level; 51 patients quit smoking for 56.6%, obtaining better results with the application of homeopathy with 27 patients for 30%. With auriculopuncture 19 patients quit smoking for 21.1% and with the application of psychological techniques 5 patients for 5.56 %.
Conclusions: Treatment with traditional and natural medicine showed better results with the application of homeopathy and auriculotherapy.

By Luis Alberto Vitón Fleitas, Mildrey Díaz Herrera, Osmaiki Martin Junco, Yadira Méndez Borrego, Yenisleidy González Borges

2022-11-19 Original
Characterization of functional capacity in the elderly

Introduction: the evaluation of the elderly should be multidimensional with the inclusion of the physical, mental, social and functional areas.
Objective: to characterize the functional capacity of elderly people in Los Palacios clinic 4 during 2021.
Methods: cross-sectional descriptive research. Population: 212 elderly adults who met the inclusion criteria. ABSTRACT measures were used for qualitative data (absolute frequency relative percentage).
Results: age 60 - 64 (28.7%), female sex (27.4%) and consensual union were predominant. The predominant dispensary group was III (61.7%), with prevalence of independence status for basic activities of daily living and for instrumented activities of daily living (IADLs), moderate dependence and frailty and falls as major geriatric syndromes predominated.
Conclusions: Functional capacity in elderly adults was characterized by state of independence for basic activities of daily living and instrumented activities.

By Daisy Mesa Trujillo, Claudia de la Caridad Zayas Argos, Ana Iris Verona Izquierdo, Israel García Mesa, Abanis López Zamora

2022-11-30 Original
Use of Rectal Ozone Therapy in Patients With Osteoarthritis

Introduction: ozone therapy is characterized by the simplicity of its application, high effectiveness, good tolerance and practically absence of side effects.
Objective: to characterize the use of rectal ozone therapy in patients with osteoarthritis treated at the ozone service of the Isabel Rubio Díaz polyclinic in the municipality of Los Palacios during 2019.
Method: descriptive and transversal research. The sample studied 84 patients attended in ozone therapy service in the analyzed period, according to inclusion criteria. ABSTRACT measures were used for qualitative data and chi-square.
Results: the predominant age group was 60 years and older (63.1%) and female sex (77.4%); the most affected joints were upper interphalangeal joints (100%), followed by knees, decreasing the degree of disability at the end of treatment, which was significant; the response to treatment was satisfactory in 81% of cases and only 4% presented adverse reactions.
Conclusions: Rectal ozone therapy has demonstrated its efficacy and few adverse reactions in patients with osteoarthritis, so its use is recommended as another therapeutic option.

By Niurka María Guzmán Carballo, Luis Leonardo Álvarez Guzmán, Elsa Camargo Loaces, Sonia Rodríguez Núñez, Verónica Álvarez Guzmán

2022-11-30 Original
Biopsychosocial factors of disability in elderly adults

Introduction: aging is a process of progressive changes that have repercussions on the physical and mental functionality of the elderly; at the same time, it is the best indicator of health in the population at this age.
Objective: to identify the biopsychosocial factors of disability that affect the elderly of the Medical Clinic #19, of the José Elías Borges Polyclinic in the municipality of Minas de Matahambre, during the period from June 2020 to May 2022.
Method: a descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in elderly adults, in whom the Mini-Mental Examination was applied to know the cognitive status of each patient, as well as, the Lawton Scale to evaluate their physical capacity, in addition to a survey to evaluate disability risk factors. The sample was selected by criteria and consisted of 200 patients. Descriptive statistics were used with the use of frequency distribution and percentage.
Results: the predominant age group was 60 to 69 years, female sex and secondary school level. In the mental sphere, more than half of the elderly studied presented a normal cognitive state, with independence in the instrumented activities of daily life; among the biological risk factors, arterial hypertension prevailed, and among the psychosocial risk factors, the loss of social role stood out.
Conclusions: the aging process of the Cuban population maintains an accelerated pace, being an achievement of the society that reflects the advances of health system.

By Marielys Echevarría González, Adriana Prieto Alfonso, Osbel Dupeirón Ramos, Yaima Ramos Horta, Yarisleidy Roque Carrera, Yaribel Licort Pita

2022-11-30 Original
Clinical-epidemiological characterization of suicide attempts

Introduction: at present, suicide is one of the ten leading causes of death in most countries.
Objective: to characterize clinically and epidemiologically the suicide attempt in the municipality of Viñales in the period from 2015 to 2018.
Method: an observational, descriptive and transversal study was carried out, the universe and the sample coincided in number (80), selected by a simple non-probabilistic random sampling, theoretical, empirical methods were applied when reviewing clinical and family health histories, in addition a structured interview and the family functioning test were applied; the data were processed and taken to tables for better interpretation, a statistical study given in absolute and relative numbers was applied.
Results: there was a predominance of female sex and age group between 25-59 years, most of them had finished high school, were married and workers, the most used suicidal methods were the soft ones, the severity of the circumstances was low, the greatest number of patients showed seriousness of intention, depression was the most frequent risk factor and family functioning was moderately functional families.
Conclusions: suicide attempts constitute a health problem in the population of Viñales, risk factors should be identified in order to carry out health actions aimed at prevention.

By Anaisa Rodríguez Zamora, Ramona Páez Miranda, Ivis Anabel Rodríguez Cruz, Yohandra Suárez López, Milexis Sánchez Pedroso, Lesvya Portales Robaina

2022-12-21 Original
Sleep Quality: A Key Factor in the Physical and Mental Recovery of Medical Students

Introduction: Sleep is considered a physiological process of vital importance for the comprehensive health of human beings. Sleep quality represents one of the most widespread yet least understood clinical aspects, making it essential to understand its incidence and the factors that may determine it.
Objective: To evaluate the sleep quality of third-year medical students from two faculties of the University of Medical Sciences of Havana.
Methods: An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted in 312 students from two health sciences faculties. The Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index was used.
Results: 1.92% indicated that their sleep quality is poor, and 17.31% reported sleep efficiency below 85%, a percentage considered the threshold for establishing an insomnia diagnosis. It was found that 60.33% of the sample would be defined as poor sleepers compared to 39.66% good sleepers.
Conclusions: The study revealed that approximately 70% of the subjects have poor sleep quality, which is exacerbated by the consumption of alcohol, coffee, and tobacco. This shows that, to the various negative effects of excessive consumption of these substances, we must add poor sleep quality.

By Javier Gonzalez-Argote

2022-12-04 Systematic reviews or meta-analyses
Effects of rehabilitative exercise on quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia. Clinical trials review

Introduction: Fibromyalgia is a chronic disease characterized by widespread pain, fatigue and sleep disorders. Although there is no cure, multidisciplinary treatment, including lifestyle changes, cognitive-behavioral therapy and medications, can help control symptoms and improve quality of life.
Methods: A systematic review of clinical studies investigating the effectiveness of exercise in patients with fibromyalgia was conducted during the period from 2017 to 2021. A total of 29 relevant scientific articles that met the established inclusion criteria and filters were identified and evaluated.
Results: Studies have shown that various physical activity interventions can have a positive impact on symptoms and quality of life in fibromyalgia patients, although efficacy may vary by modality. Obesity may moderate the benefits of treatment, and it is suggested that staying active may be an effective strategy in the management of fibromyalgia.
Conclusions: The most effective interventions were low-intensity physical exercise programs, such as resistance and coordination training; muscle stretching exercises and resistance training; core strengthening exercises and stretching exercises; and Tai Chi.

By Leandro Mendoza Rivas, Ismael Lázaro Armenta Alcocer

2022-12-11 Systematic reviews or meta-analyses
Use of virtual reality in rehabilitation

Introduction: Virtual reality is a promising medical rehabilitation tool, offering patients a safe and interactive experience to improve their quality of life. Scientific studies support its effectiveness in improving balance, coordination, and cognitive function in various conditions.
Methods: PubMed was searched for information using descriptors related to virtual reality and physical and mental rehabilitation. Twenty-nine clinical and observational trial articles published in the last 10 years in English and Spanish were selected, and the PRISMA methodology was used for systematic reviews.
Results: The results indicate that virtual reality therapy can improve motor, cognitive and psychological function in diverse patient populations. However, the effectiveness of different virtual reality approaches may vary depending on the population and rehabilitation goals.
Conclusion: Virtual reality therapy improves motor function and quality of life in patients with various medical conditions. Combining it with other therapies can enhance outcomes and shows benefits in treating neurological and psychological conditions.

By Javier Gonzalez-Argote

2022-06-12 Systematic reviews or meta-analyses
Review of clinical trials on the effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation in patients with traumatic brain injury

Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can impact patients' cognitive functioning and quality of life. This study assesses the effectiveness of cognitive interventions in TBI patients and examines factors influencing their success, aiming to enhance care and customize treatments for optimal rehabilitation outcomes. Methods: A systematic review of 31 scientific articles evaluating the effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation in patients with traumatic brain injuries was conducted, following the PRISMA workflow. The studies covered the period from 2017 to 2021, and specific terms were used to search the PubMed and Scopus databases. Results and discussion: The research on cognitive interventions in patients with traumatic brain injuries has involved various countries, with notable contributions from the United States, Norway, the United Kingdom, and Canada. Cognitive training has proven to be effective, showing significant improvements in symptoms and quality of life. Other therapies, such as transcranial direct stimulation and vocational rehabilitation, have also been investigated. Conclusions: Cognitive training has proven to be an effective technique in managing traumatic brain injuries, demonstrating significant improvements in composite cognitive measures and patients' quality of life. Some therapies, such as hyperbaric oxygen therapy, have shown promising results in treating symptoms such as post-traumatic stress, depression, and anxiety in patients with traumatic brain injuries.

By Leandro Mendoza Rivas, Laura Martínez Cruz

2022-12-14 Short communications
Knowledge Structure in Rehabilitation within and beyond the Medical Field: Bibliometric Perspectives of the Categories "Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation" and "Rehabilitation"

Effective communication is crucial in the fields of Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy, and Rehabilitation. Several studies highlight the importance of communication strategies and their impact on patient outcomes and motivation. A bibliometric study was carried out in the categories "Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation" and "Rehabilitation" in the Scopus database. While both fields exhibit robustness and relevance in the academic and research panorama, "Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy, and Rehabilitation" appears to have an edge in terms of volume, impact, and collaboration. However, it's essential to note that the quality and actual impact on clinical practice and society may require considerations beyond these metrics. In conclusion, research in physical therapy, sports therapy, and rehabilitation is essential to advance the profession, improve patient care, and contribute to society's overall well-being. The implications of this work extend beyond the clinical realm, influencing education, policy, and health economics. It's an investment in the future of healthcare and a testament to the ongoing commitment to excellence and evidence-based care.

By Carlos Alberto Gómez Cano, Verenice Sánchez Castillo

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